### CHAPTER 11:Heat and Thermodynamics

(1)               Dimension of pressure is.
(a)    MLT
(b)    ML-1T-1
(c)    ML-1T-2
(d)    ML-2T-2

(2)               Temperature is a property, which determines.
(a)    How much heat a body contains
(b)    Whether a body will feel hot or cold to touch
(c)    In which direction heat will flow between two systems
(d)    How much total absolute energy a body has.

(3)               WE prefer mercury as a thermometric substance because.
(a)    Over a wide range of temperature is expansion is uniform
(b)    It does not stick to thermometer glass
(c)    It is opaque to light
(d)    All of above

(4)               The scales of temperature are based on two fixed points, which are.
(a)    The temperature of water at 0oC and 100oC.
(b)    The temperature of melting ice and boiling water at atmospheric pressure.
(c)    The temperatures of ice cold and boiling water
(d)    The temperatures of frozen and boiling mercury

(5)               Numerical value of Bolzmann’s constant is.
(a)    1.38x10-31JK-1
(b)    3.18x10-31JK-1
(c)    3.18x10-23JK-1
(d)    1.38x10-23JK-1

(6)               In a clinical thermometer, the mercury in the capillary tube does not contract one removed from the patient because.
(a)    Mercury takes a long time to contract
(b)    The amount of mercury use is very small
(c)    The capillary tube has a small constriction near the bulb
(d)    The capillary tube is very narrow
(7)               Normal human body temperature 98.6oF corresponds to.
(a)    37oC
(b)    42 oC
(c)    55 oC
(d)    410 oC

(8)               The Fahrenheit and centigrade scales agree to.
(a)    -40
(b)    15.5
(c)    542
(d)    -273

(9)               The size of one degree of Celsius is equal to.
(a)    One degree of Fahrenheit scale
(b)    1.8 degrees of Fahrenheit scale
(c)    3.2 degrees of Fahrenheit scale
(d)    2.12 degrees of Fahrenheit scale

(10)           At constant temperature, the graph between V and 1 / P is.
(a)    Hyperbola
(b)    Parabola
(c)    A curve of any shape
(d)    A straight line

(11)           According to Pascal’s law the pressure of gas in a vessel is.
(a)    Different in different direction
(b)    Same in all direction
(c)    Same only along opposite directions
(d)    Same only along normal directions

(12)           We can produce heat by.
(a)    Frictional process
(b)    Chemical processes
(c)    Electrical processes
(d)    All of the above

(13)           Which one is true for internal energy?
(a)    It is sum of all forms of energies associated with molecules of a system.
(b)    It is a state function of a system
(c)    It is proportional to transnational K.E of the molecules
(d)    All are correct

(14)           Metabolism is the name of a process in which energy transformation take place within.
(a)    Heat engine
(b)    Human body
(c)    Atmosphere
(d)    Laboratory

(15)           Which one is not an example of adiabatic process?
(a)    Rapid escape of air from a burst tyre
(b)    Rapid expansion of air
(c)    Conversion of water into ice in refrigerator
(d)    Cloud formation in the atmosphere

(16)           The pressure exerted by a column of mercury 76cm high and at 0oC is Called.
(a)    1 Atmosphere
(b)    1 Newton per square meter
(c)    1 Pascal
(d)    date is insufficient

(17)           Standard condition (STP) refer to a gas at.
(a)    76cm, 0oC
(b)    760mm, 273K
(c)    1 atm, 273K
(d)    all of the above

(18)           If the volume of a gas is held constant and we increase its temperature then.
(a)    its pressure is constant
(b)    its pressure rises
(c)    its pressure falls
(d)    any of above

(19)           “If the pressure of a given gas is held constant its density is inversely
proportional to its absolute temperature.” We can refer it as another statement of.
(a)    Boyle’s law
(b)    Charle’s law
(c)    Ideal gas law

(20)           Boyle’s law holds for ideal gases in.
(a)    Isochoric processes
(b)    Isobaric processes
(c)    Isothermal processes

(21)           Gas molecules of different masses in the same container have the same average transnational kinetic energy, which is directly proportional  to
(a)    Volume
(b)    Pressure
(c)    Absolute temperature
(d)    Time

(22)           Which one is correct relation?
(a)    CP +CV= γ
(b)    CP = 1+R/Cv
(c)    γ  = CP/CV
(d)    CP = 1-R/CV

(23)           The reading on the Fahrenheit scale will be double the reading on the centrigrade scale when the temperature on the centigrade scale is.
(a)    460oC
(b)    280 oC
(c)    360 oC
(d)    160 oC

(24)           The area inclosed by the curve ABCDA for a Carnot heat engine represents the work done by Carnot engine.
(a)    At any instant
(b)    Averagely
(c)    During its operation
(d)    During one cycle

(25)           For a gas obeying Boyle’s law, if the pressure is doubled, the volume Becomes.
(a)    Double
(b)    One half
(c)    Four time
(d)    One fourth

(26)           Triple point of water is.
(a)    273 oC
(b)    273K
(c)    273.16 oC
(d)    273.16 K

(27)           Which of the following properties of molecules of gas is same for all gases
at particular temperature?
(a)    Momentum
(b)    Mass
(c)    Velocity
(d)    Kinetic energy

(28)           Boltzmann constant K in terms of universal gas constant R and Avagadro’s number Na is given as,
(a)    K = RNa
(b)    K = R/Na
(c)    K = Na/Ra
(d)    K = nRNa

(29)           Average translational kinetic energy per molecule of an ideal gas is given by
(a)    3NaT/2 R
(b)    2NaT/3
(c)    3RT/2Na
(d)    3Na/2RT

(30)           In which process entropy remains constant.
(a)    Isobaric
(b)    Isochoric
(d)    Isothermal

(31)      The expression for the absolute temperature T of an ideal gas is given by
(a)    T = 3/2 k <1/2 m v2>
(b)   T = 2/3 <1/2 m v2>
(c)    T=
(d)
(32)      The amount of heat required raising the temp. of 1 kg of a substance through 1 K is called

(a) specific heat      (b) heat capacity
(c) calorie             (d) Joule

(33)      Specific heats of a gas at const. pressure and at const. volume are respectively Cp and Cv>
(a) Cp <  Cv             (b) Cp >  Cv
(c) Cp =  Cv             (d) none of these

(34)      The ratio Cp/Cv = γ for a monoatomic gas is equal to
(a) 1.67                 (b) 1.40
(c) 1.29                  (d) 1.11

(35)      The first law of thermodynamics is an expression of
(a)    the conservation of energy including heat
(b) Conservation of mass
(c)  heat death of the universe

(36)      The process in which the pressure of the system remains constant is called
(c) isobaric (d) isochoric

(a) ΔQ = ΔU          (b) ΔQ = ΔW
(c) ΔQ = 0              (d) ΔQ = ΔU - ΔW

(38)      In thermodynamic process, ΔQ = ΔU. The process is
(a) isothermal        (b) isobaric

(39)      The efficiency of a Carnot engine between HTR at T1 and LTR at T2 is given by:
(a) 1 -               (b)
(c)             (d)

(40)      The property of a system that remains constant during an adiabatic process is called
(a)    internal energy
(b)   entropy
(c) temperature
(d) pressure

### COMMON COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION OF A TRANSISTOR

COMMON COLLECTOR CONNECTION

In  this  configuration  the  input  is  applied  between the  base  and  the  collector and  the  output  is  taken  from  the  collector  and  the  emitter.  Here  the  collector  is common to both the input and the output circuits as shown in Fig.

Common Collector Transistor Circuit

In  common  collector  configuration  the  input  current  is  the  base current  IB  and  the output current is the emitter current IE. The ratio of change in emitter current to the  change in the base current is called current amplification factor.

It is represented by

COMMON COLLECTOR CIRCUIT

A test  circuit  for determining the  static characteristic  of an NPN transistor is shown in Fig. In this circuit the collector is common to both the input and the output circuits.   To   measure   the   base   and   the   emitter   currents,   milli   ammeters   are connected in series with the base and the emitter circuits. Voltmeters are connected   across the input an…