Skip to main content

Cosmic Rays

     High energy electrons, protons, and complex nuclei can be produced in a number of astronomical environments. Such particles travel throughout the universe and are called cosmic rays. Some of these particles reach our Earth. As these objects hit our atmosphere, other particles called pions and muons are produced. These particles then slow down or crash into other atoms in the atmosphere. Since the atmosphere slows down these particles, the higher we travel, the more cosmic radiation we see. When you visit the mountains or take an airplane ride, you will encounter more cosmic radiation than if you stayed at sea level.
     Most cosmic radiation is very energetic. It can easily pass through an inch of lead. Since cosmic radiation can cause genetic changes, some scientists believe that this radiation has been important in driving the evolution of life on our planet. While cosmic radiation can cause some damage to individuals, it also has played an important role in creating humans. Our atmosphere is naturally shielding us from harmful effects. However, if we were to leave the earth and travel to some planet, we could be subjected to very high levels of radiation. Future space travelers will have to find some way to minimize exposure to cosmic rays.


Popular posts from this blog



In  this  configuration  the  input  is  applied  between the  base  and  the  collector and  the  output  is  taken  from  the  collector  and  the  emitter.  Here  the  collector  is common to both the input and the output circuits as shown in Fig.

  Common Collector Transistor Circuit

In  common  collector  configuration  the  input  current  is  the  base current  IB  and  the output current is the emitter current IE. The ratio of change in emitter current to the  change in the base current is called current amplification factor.

It is represented by


A test  circuit  for determining the  static characteristic  of an NPN transistor is shown in Fig. In this circuit the collector is common to both the input and the output circuits.   To   measure   the   base   and   the   emitter   currents,   milli   ammeters   are connected in series with the base and the emitter circuits. Voltmeters are connected   across the input an…

XII - Ch# 12 : Electrostatics :Solved Numericals

Solution Manual : Mathematical methods for physicists 5th edition Arfken and Weber

DJ VU Reader
Book Description Now in its 7th edition, Mathematical Methods for Physicists continues to provide all the mathematical methods that aspiring scientists and engineers are likely to encounter as students and beginning researchers. This bestselling text provides mathematical relations and their proofs essential to the study of physics and related fields. While retaining the key features of the 6th edition, the new edition provides a more careful balance of explanation, theory, and examples. Taking a problem-solving-skills approach to incorporating theorems with applications, the book's improved focus will help students succeed throughout their academic careers and well into their professions. Some notable enhancements include more refined and focused content in important topics, improved organization, updated notations, extensive explanations and intuitive exercise sets, a wider range of problem solutions, improvement in the placement, and a wider ra…