Kaniz e zehra asked What is Heat?

11/13/2014 10:06:13 Kaniz e zehra asked What is Heat?

Consider a very hot mug of coffee on the countertop of your kitchen. For discussion purposes, we will say that the cup of coffee has a temperature of 80°C and that the surroundings (countertop, air in the kitchen, etc.) has a temperature of 26°C. What do you suppose will happen in this situation? I suspect that you know that the cup of coffee will gradually cool down over time. At 80°C, you wouldn't dare drink the coffee. Even the coffee mug will likely be too hot to touch. But over time, both the coffee mug and the coffee will cool down. Soon it will be at a drinkable temperature. And if you resist the temptation to drink the coffee, it will eventually reach room temperature. The coffee cools from 80°C to about 26°C. So what is happening over the course of time to cause the coffee to cool down? The answer to this question can be both macroscopic and particulate in nature.

On the macroscopic level, we would say that the coffee and the mug are transferring heat to the surroundings. This transfer of heat occurs from the hot coffee and hot mug to the surrounding air. The fact that the coffee lowers its temperature is a sign that the average kinetic energy of its particles is decreasing. The coffee is losing energy. The mug is also lowering its temperature; the average kinetic energy of its particles is also decreasing. The mug is also losing energy. The energy that is lost by the coffee and the mug is being transferred to the colder surroundings. We refer to this transfer of energy from the coffee and the mug to the surrounding air and countertop as heat. In this sense, heat is simply the transfer of energy from a hot object to a colder object.

Now let's consider a different scenario - that of a cold can of pop placed on the same kitchen counter. For discussion purposes, we will say that the pop and the can which contains it has a temperature of 5°C and that the surroundings (countertop, air in the kitchen, etc.) has a temperature of 26°C. What will happen to the cold can of pop over the course of time? Once more, I suspect that you know the answer. The cold pop and the container will both warm up to room temperature. But what is happening to cause these colder-than-room-temperature objects to increase their temperature? Is the cold escaping from the pop and its container? No! There is no such thing as the cold escaping or leaking. Rather, our explanation is very similar to the explanation used to explain why the coffee cools down. There is a heat transfer.

Over time, the pop and the container increase their temperature. The temperature rises from 5°C to nearly 26°C. This increase in temperature is a sign that the average kinetic energy of the particles within the pop and the container is increasing. In order for the particles within the pop and the container to increase their kinetic energy, they must be gaining energy from somewhere. But from where? Energy is being transferred from the surroundings (countertop, air in the kitchen, etc.) in the form of heat. Just as in the case of the cooling coffee mug, energy is being transferred from the higher temperature objects to the lower temperature object. Once more, this is known as heat - the transfer of energy from the higher temperature object to a lower temperature object.

COMMON COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION OF A TRANSISTOR

COMMON COLLECTOR CONNECTION

In  this  configuration  the  input  is  applied  between the  base  and  the  collector and  the  output  is  taken  from  the  collector  and  the  emitter.  Here  the  collector  is common to both the input and the output circuits as shown in Fig.

Common Collector Transistor Circuit

In  common  collector  configuration  the  input  current  is  the  base current  IB  and  the output current is the emitter current IE. The ratio of change in emitter current to the  change in the base current is called current amplification factor.

It is represented by

COMMON COLLECTOR CIRCUIT

A test  circuit  for determining the  static characteristic  of an NPN transistor is shown in Fig. In this circuit the collector is common to both the input and the output circuits.   To   measure   the   base   and   the   emitter   currents,   milli   ammeters   are connected in series with the base and the emitter circuits. Voltmeters are connected   across the input an…