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Showing posts from January, 2013

F.A.Q's: Particle Physics

Why are the laws of physics not symmetrical between left and right, future and past, and between matter and antimatter?  I.e., what is the mechanism of CP violation, and what is the origin of parity violation in Weak interactions?  Are there right-handed Weak currents too weak to have been detected so far?  If so, what broke the symmetry?  Is CP violation explicable entirely within the Standard Model, or is some new force or mechanism required?Why is there more matter than antimatter, at least around here?  Is there really more matter than antimatter throughout the universe?  This seems related to the previous question, since most attempts at explaining the prevalence of matter over antimatter make use of CP violation.Are there really just three generations of leptons and quarks?  If so, why?  For example, the muon is a particle almost exactly like the electron except much heavier, and the tau particle is also almost the same, but heavier still.  Why do these three exist and no more? …

F.A.Q's:Cosmology and Astrophysics

What happened at or before the Big Bang?  Was there really an initial singularity?  Does the history of the Universe go back in time forever, or only a finite amount?  Of course, these questions might not make sense, but they might.Are there really three dimensions of space and one of time?  If so, why?  Or is spacetime higher-dimensional, or perhaps not really a manifold at all when examined on a short enough distance scale?  If so, why does it appear to have three dimensions of space and one of time?  Or are these unanswerable questions?Is the Universe infinite in spatial extent?  More generally: what is the topology of space?
We still don't know, but in 2003 some important work was done on this issue:Neil J. Cornish, David N. Spergel, Glenn D. Starkman and Eiichiro Komatsu, Constraining the Topology of the Universe. Briefly, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) was used to rule out nontrivial topology within a distance of 78,000 million light years—at least for a lar…

F.A.Q's:Quantum Mechanics

How should we think about quantum mechanics?  For example, what is meant by a "measurement" in quantum mechanics?  Does "wavefunction collapse" actually happen as a physical process?  If so, how, and under what conditions?  If not, what happens instead?
Many physicists think these issues are settled, at least for most practical purposes.  However, some still think the last word has not been heard.  Asking about this topic in a roomful of physicists is the best way to start an argument, unless they all say "Oh no, not that again!".  There are many books to read on this subject, but most of them disagree.Can we build a working quantum computer big enough to do things ordinary computers can't easily do?
This question is to some extent impacted by the previous one, but it also has a strong engineering aspect to it.  Some physicists think quantum computers are impossible in principle; more think they are possible in principle, but are still unsure if they …

F.A.Q's :Condensed Matter and Nonlinear Dynamics

What causes sonoluminescence?  Sonoluminescence is the generation of small light bursts in liquids caused by sound.  Bubbles form in the liquid at low pressure points of the sound wave, then collapse again as a high pressure wave passes.  At the point of collapse a small flash of light is produced.  The exact cause has been the subject of intense speculation and research. For more details, try this:
Sonoluminescence, Wikipedia.What causes high temperature superconductivity?  Is it possible to make a material that is a superconductor at room temperature?  Superconductivity at very low temperatures has been understood since 1957 in terms of the BCS theory, but high temperature superconductors discovered in 1986 are still unexplained. To learn more about superconductivity, see this web page and its many links:Superconductivity, Wikipedia.How can turbulence be understood and its effects calculated?  One of the oldest problems of them all.  A vast amount is known about turbulence, and we ca…

Solution Manual : Mathematical methods for physicists 5th edition Arfken and Weber

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Book Description Now in its 7th edition, Mathematical Methods for Physicists continues to provide all the mathematical methods that aspiring scientists and engineers are likely to encounter as students and beginning researchers. This bestselling text provides mathematical relations and their proofs essential to the study of physics and related fields. While retaining the key features of the 6th edition, the new edition provides a more careful balance of explanation, theory, and examples. Taking a problem-solving-skills approach to incorporating theorems with applications, the book's improved focus will help students succeed throughout their academic careers and well into their professions. Some notable enhancements include more refined and focused content in important topics, improved organization, updated notations, extensive explanations and intuitive exercise sets, a wider range of problem solutions, improvement in the placement, and a wider ra…

Solution : Introduction to quantum mechanics (2ed) Griffiths,David.J

Gravitation: Frequently Asked Questions (F.A.Qs)

62. What is gravitation?
The attraction that every particle of matter in the universe has for every other particle.

63. When the moon comes' between the sun and the earthy how does that affect the attraction between the sun and the earth ?
Such interposition of matter has no effect on the attract-
ive force originally existing.

64. What is the first law of gravitation?
The attractive force (gravitation) between two bodies varies as the product of the masses of the two bodies.

65. Illustrate this law.

If two bodies contain 5 and 10 pounds of matter respectively, the product may be represented by 5a \\ two
other bodies contain 4 and 25 pounds of matter respectively, the product may be similarly represented by
100. Acting at like distances, the attraction between the second two will be twice (=Vrf') as great as the at-
traction between the first two.

66. How would doubling the matter in one of the bodies affect their gravitation?
It would double one of the factors, and thus the …

The Trouble with Physics- Lee Smolin

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The Trouble With Physics is a 2006 book by the theoretical physicistLee Smolin about the problems withstring theory. Subtitled The Rise of String Theory, the Fall of a Science, and What Comes Next, the book strongly criticizes string theory and its prominence in contemporary theoretical physics, on the grounds that string theory has yet to come up with a single prediction that can be verified using any technology that is likely to be feasible within our lifetimes. Smolin also focuses on the difficulties faced by research in quantum gravity, and by current efforts to come up with a theory explaining all four fundamental interactions. More generally, the book is broadly concerned with the role of controversy and diversity of approaches in scientific processes and ethics.

Classical Mechanics Goldstein-Solutions

Classical Mechanics (3rd Edition) Goldstein Poole Safko

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For 30 years, this book has been the acknowledged standard in advanced classical mechanics courses. This classic book enables readers to make connections between classical and modern physics — an indispensable part of a physicist's education. In this new edition, Beams Medal winner Charles Poole and John Safko have updated the book to include the latest topics, applications, and notation to reflect today's physics curriculum.

Introductory Quantum Mechanics (4th Edition) Richard Liboff

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Careful and detailed explanations of challenging concepts in Introductory Quantum Mechanics, Fourth Edition, and comprehensive and up-to-date coverage, continue to set the standard in physics education. In the new edition of this best-selling quantum mechanics book, a new chapter on the revolutionary topic of of quantum computing (not currently covered in any other book at this level) and thorough updates to the rest of the book bring it up to date.

Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Sixth Edition: A Comprehensive Guide Arfken- Weber- Harris

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This best-selling title provides in one handy volume the essential mathematical tools and techniques used to solve problems in physics. It is a vital addition to the bookshelf of any serious student of physics or research professional in the field. The authors have put 

* Updates the leading graduate-level text in mathematical physics
* Provides comprehensive coverage of the mathematics necessary for advanced study in physics and engineering
* Focuses on problem-solving skills and offers a vast array of exercises
* Clearly illustrates and proves mathematical relations

Electronic devices 6th ed. by thomas l.floyd

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This popular, up-to-date devices book takes a strong systems approach that identifies the circuits and components within a system, and helps readers see how the circuit relates to the overall system function. Floyd is well known for straightforward, understandable explanations of complex concepts, as well as for non-technical, on-target treatment of mathematics. The extensive use of examples, Multisim simulations, and graphical illustrations makes even complex concepts understandable. From discrete components, to linear integrated circuits, to programmable analog devices, this booksA coverage is well balanced between discrete and integrated circuits. Also includes focus on power amplifiers; BJT and FET amplifiers; advanced integrated circuits-instrumentation and isolation amplifiers; OTAs; log/antilog amplifiers; and converters. Thorough coverage of optical topics-high intensity LEDs and fiber optics. Devices sections on differential amplifiers and the IGBT (insulated gate bip…

Work and Energy:Frequently Asked Questions (F.A.Qs)

38. What is work?

Work is the overcoming of resistance. The term implies
a change of position and is independent of the time
taken.

39. What may we take as a type of work?

The lifting of a bodv against the force of gravity, i, e,.
against the  pull  of the earth.

4a How may we measure such work ?

By considering both the weight of the body and the height
which it is raised.

41. How are work-units classified?

As gravitation units and absolute units, with two in each
class.

42. What are the gravitation units of work ?

The work expended in lifting one pound one foot against
the force of gravity is called a loot-pound. The work
expended in lifting one kilogram one meter against the
same force is called a kilogrammeter.

43. What are the absolute units of work ?

The work done by one poundal in producing a displace-
ment of one foot is called a foot-poundal. The work
done by one dyne in producing a displacement of one
centimeter is called an erg.

44. What is the numerical relation between th…

Force and Motion : Frequently Asked Questions (F.A.Qs)

1. What is motion?
Change of position.

2. What is velocity ?

Rate of motion ; it may be uniform or variable.

3. What is acceleration ?

Rate of change of velocity ; i. e,, the change of velocity
per unit of time.

4. What is force ?

Any cause that tends to produce any change of motion.

5. What is momentum?
Quantity of motion.

6. How is it measured?

By the product of the number of units of mass into the
number of units of velocity.

7. What is the unit of momentum called ?

It has no specific name. We may compare the momenta
of two moving bodies by the ratio between the two
measuring products as above explained. The momentum
of a body having a mass of 40 pounds and a velocity of
15 feet per second is twice as ereat as that of a body
having a mass of 10 pounds and a velocity of 30 feet per
second.

8. What is the first law of motion ?

Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform
motion, in a straight line^ unless compelled to change
that state by some external force.

9. From what…

Properties of Matter : Frequently Asked Questions (F.A.Qs)

26. What is a property of matter ?
Some quality that pertains to matter.

27. What is a universal property of matter ?

A quality that pertains to all matter, a quality without
which matter, as we know it, could not exist.

28. What is a characteristic or accessory property of matter?

A quality that pertains to some kind or kinds of matter
and not to others, and that thus enables us to distinguish
one substance from another.

29. Name some of the universal properties of matter.
Extension, impenetrability, indestructibility, weight and
inertia.

30. Name some of the characteristic properties of matter.
Hardness, as of the diamond ; tenacity, as of steel ; brit-
tleness, as of glass; malleability, as of gold; ductility,
as of platinum.

31. What is extension ?

The property of matter by which matter takes up room,
i. e.y occupies space.

32. To what does it refer?

To length, breadth and thickness, a combination that is
essential to the existence of matter.

33. What is impenetrability ?

The pro…