Physics : CH # 1




Definition Of Physics:
 Physics is an important branch of Science which offers the study of matter and energy along with the interaction between them.
Branches Of Physics:
There are many branches of physics:
1. Mechanics:
Branch of physics, which deals with the motion of particles or bodies under the action of given forces,is called mechanics.
2. Electricity:
Branch of physics, which deals with the physical, phenomena involving electric charges and their effects when at rest and when in motion is called electricity.
3. Electromagnetism:
Branch of physics, which deals with the observation and laws relating to electricity and magnetism, is called electromagnetism.
4. Solid State Physics:
Branch of physics, which deals with the property of crystalline material only is called solid state physics.
5. Atomic Physics:
Branch of physics, which deals with structure and properties of atoms as determined by the electrons outside the nucleus, is called atomic physics.
6. Nuclear Physics:
Branch of physics, which deals with the structure , properties and reaction between the nuclei of atom, is called nuclear physics.
7.Plasma Physics:
Branch of physics, which deals with the properties of highly, ionized atoms forming a mixture of bare nuclei (nuclei with out electron) and electron is called ion plasma, is called plasma physics.
8. Bio Physics:
Branch of physics, which deals with the application of physical methods and types of explanation to bio physical systems and structure, is called bio physics.
9. Astro Physics:
Branch of physics, which deals with the application of modern physics to the problems of astronomy, is called A Physics.


Contribution Of Muslims Scientists:


1. Ibne-Al-Haitham(965-1039 A.D) :
Introduction:
He was born in Basra a city of Iraq. He was one of the great Muslim Scientist. He was a great scholar of physics,mathematics,engineering,astronomy and medicine.
Contribution  :
    1, He was a first man who discussed in detail about the luminous, non-luminous and transparent bodies.
2, He also gave the structure and working of eyes.
3, He gave us many laws of reflection and wrote many books about the reflection of light.
4, He also first time gave the idea that whenever the ray of light is incident on an object some of the incident rays are reflected from the object and enter the eyes consequently the object becomes visible to the eyes which is accepted the scientific view.



2. Al-Beruni :
Introduction:
He was born in Berun a small town of Afghanistan.He wrote many books on various subjects like physics,mathematics,culture,astronomy e.t.c
Contribution:
1, He discussed in detail about the movement of sun moon and others planets.
2, He determined the densities of various metals .
3, He gave an idea that Earth is floating in the sky like a ships in the water.
4, He also awarded that he was a first who said that the velocity of light is more than the velocity of sound.



3.Muhammad Ibne Musa Khawrzmi :
Introduction:
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi was born in 850A.D at Khwarizm (Kheva), a town south of river Oxus in present Uzbekistan.
Contribution:
1, Al-Khwarizmi was one of the greatest mathematicians ever lived. He was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics. He is also famous as an astronomer and geographer.
2, He developed in detail trigonometric tables containing the sine functions, which were later extrapolated to tangent functions.
3, Al-Khwarizmi also developed the calculus of two errors, which led him to the concept of differentiation. He also refined the geometric representation of conic sections.
4, Al-Khwarizmi wrote a book on astronomical tables. Several of his books were translated into Latin in the early l2th century by Adelard of Bath and Gerard of Cremona. The treatises on Arithmetic, Kitab al-Jam’a wal-Tafreeq bil Hisab al-Hindi, and the one on Algebra, Al-Maqala fi Hisab-al Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, are known only from Latin translations.
5, He was a first man who introduce the decimal system in mathematics.



4. Yaqub Al Kindi:
Introduction:
He was born in Basra in 800 AD.
Contribution:
1, He produced research on meteorology, specific gravity and on tides.
2,He also worked in the field of optics, especially on reflection of light.





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